Operating System And Its Function -:An operating system (OS) is a software program that control the internal activities of the computer hardware and provide user interface application program need to interact with the operating system for using hardware resources.
An operating system consists of a set of program which control, coordinates and supervises the activities of the various components of a computer system . It is a program which act as an interface between the user and the hardware. The interface enable a user to utilise hardware resources very efficiently. Operating System (OS) is an organised collection or integrated set of specialised program that controls the overall operations of a computer. It is a program that must be on any computer for proper booting.
Operating System (OS) is the first program loaded (copied) into the computer main memory after the computer is switched on. The operating system is premierly concerned with allocating and de – allocating computer resources to one or more jobs.
Operating system that supporter single user at a time are known as single user operating system such as windows XP some like Linux, UNIX, etc., support multiple user at a time.
Function of Operating System
Operating system is a large and complex software consisting of several components it is responsible for managing all the resources attached to a computer system.
Following functions are provided by an operating system to the convenience of users :
- Process Management
- Memory Management
- Input/Output Management
- File Management
- Time Sharing
- Security Management
‘A process is a program under execution’. It is the task which is currently being executed by the processor (CPU). The operating system handles the creation and deletion of processes and also manage the scheduling and synchronisation of process. Process Management it is the important part of an operating system which enable the activities of planning , monitoring and performance of a process.
In other words, the operating system is assigns processor (if a computer has more than one processor) to the different task that must be performed by the computer.
Memory management of an operating system takes care of allocation and de allocation of main memory to various process. Managing the primary memory, sharing the and minimising memory access time are the basic goals of the memory management. It also keeps track of memory usage. The performance of memory management is crucial for the performance of entire system.
In other words, it (OS) allocate the main memory and secondary memory to the system program user program and data.
The Input/Output management module of the OS coordinates and assigns different input and output devices, namely terminals, printers, disc drives, tape drives, etc input output management control all I/O device keeps track of I/O request Ishu command to these device and takes measure which would ensure that data is transmitted efficiently and correctly to and from I/O device.
In other Words, Input/Output Management fit carries out input output management and co-ordinate and aside different input and output device.
File management module of operating system manages files held on various storage devices as well as transfers file from one storage device to another. The file management includes creating and deleting both files and directories, allocating space for files, keeping back-up securing, easy access to files.
It is established and enforce the job priority that is a determine and maintain the order in which job are to be executed in the computer system.
Time – Sharing
It co-ordinate and a sign compilers, assemblers, utility program and other software package to various user working on the computer system.
It established data security and integrity . That is it keeps different program and data in such a manner that they do not interfere with each other more ever it also protect data from being destroyed by any other user.
Types of Operating System
- Batch Processing Operating System
- Single User Operating System
- Multi User Operating System
- Multi – Tasking Operating System
Batch Processing Operating System
In Batch Processing Operating System, a number of jobs are put together and executed as a group . This operating system is responsible for scheduling the jobs according to priority and the resources required . It is the type of OS which does not interact with the computer directly. e.g. Unix .
Single User Operating System
It is a type of operating system which allows only one user at a time . Operating System for personal computer (PC) is single user OS. They are designed to manage one task at a time .e.g. MS-DOS , Windows 9X .
Multi User Operating System
This OS allows multiple users to access a computer system concurrently . It is used in computer networks that allows same data and application to he accessed by multiple users at the same time . e.g. VMS etc.
Multi – Tasking Operating System
In multitasking Operating System more than one process can be executed concurrently it also allow the user to switch between the running application. e.g. Linux , Unix , Window 95 .
An Operating System provides an interface between the computer user and the hardware. The user interface is one of the most important parts of any operating system because it allows user to easily access and communicate with the application and the hardware .
The user can interact with the computer by using mainly two kinds of interfaces .
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
It is a computer program that enables a person to communicate with a computer through the use of symbols , visual metaphors and pointing devices. It is the best Known for its implementation in Apple products .
The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox Corporation in 1970s . GUIs can be found in hand health device such as MP3 players, Portable media players, Gaming device, etc.
Character User Interface (CUI)
It is also known as Command Line Interface (CLI). CUI is a mechanism of interesting with a computer system or software by typing commands to perform its specific task program with character user interface are generally easier to automate wear scripting. CUI only uses textiles one after another just as commands used in MS-DOS.
MS-DOS (Microsoft- Disk Operating System)
The DOS OS was developed by Microsoft in 1980 for micro computers. MS-DOS was the first operating system that run on PC developed by IBM corporation in 1981. DOS is a single user operating system. It is only operating system which can be loaded in the main memory of the computer using a single disk .
Some Important Operating System
Some popular operating system are as follows:-
- UNIX The first version of Unix was developed in 1969 by Ken- Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at AT & T Bell Laboratories . It is primarily used to a server rather than a workstation and should not be used by anyone who does not understand the system . It is an Operating System which was in first developed in the 1969. UNIX system have a Graphical User Interface (GUI) similar to different Microsoft Windows which provide and easy way to use platform. It supports fully multi-tasking with protected memory which means multiple user can learn multiple program at the same time without interference with each other or crashing the system. UNIX was one of the first operating system to be written in a high level programming language namely C.The UNIX Operating System is made up of three parts Kernel , Shell , Programs.
- Apple Macintosh (Mac OS ) It was introduced in January 1984 by Steve jobs and was initially named as systems software which was letter renamed as Mac OS most recent version of OS is based on Unix because it has a good graphical interface. It is an Operating System which was introduced on March 24 2001 by apple Inc and was initially named as system software which was letter re named as Mac OS most recent version of OS is based on Unix because it has a good graphical interface so it is both stable does not crash of 10 or has as many software problem as other system may have and easy to learn one drawback of this system is that it can only be run on Apple produce product.
LINUX. The first Linux Kernel was released in October 1991 by linus. It is an open source software, means anyone can download it and use it without any fees Linux is similar to Unix in operation . It is difficult to understand by anyone who does not understand the system and can be difficult to learn. It is an open source Operating System designed primarily for the PCs and laptops. Linux was designed considering units compatibility. Its functionality list is quite similar to that of Unix. One of the most valued advantage of Linux over the other platform lies with the high security level it is a virus free operating system.
SOLARIS. it is a free UNIX based OS developed by Sun Microsystems. The first version of Sun microsystem was published in 1992 and coined as SunOS. It is a free operating system originally developed by sun micro system in 1993 Oracle Solaris as it is now known and owned by Oracle corporation since Oracle acquisition of sun in January 2010. Solaris is also known for it scare scary ability reduced cost protected investment in application it is a standard operating system with excellent performance system management and network function.
BOSS. (Bharat Operating System Solution)BOSS GNU/Linux (or simply BOSS) developed by C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing ) was initially released in 2007 and derived from Debian for enhancing the use of Free/Open Source Software throughout India . BOSS Linux provides GUI to the user.
- Microsoft Windows. It is an operating system based on GUI, developed by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 in response to the growing interest in GUIs.
Mobile Operating System
Some popular mobile operating system are as follows:-
- Android It is a mobile OS developed by Google, which is based on Linux Kernel. It is basically designed for touch screen mobile devices like Tablets, Smartphones, etc. Now-a-days, it is most common as used in mobile phones. The latest version of Android is now get which was released on 22 August, 2016.
- Symbian It is a OS developed and sold by Symbian Ltd. It is an open source mobile OS design for smartphones.It has been used by many major handset manufacturers including Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sony etc. The latest version of Symbian is Nokia belle which was released in October 2012.
- iOS It is a the popular mobile operating system developed by Apple Incorporation. This operating system is commonly used in Apple iPhone, iPod touch, iPad, etc. The latest version of iOS is iOS 10.0.2 which was released on 23rd September 2016.
- Blackberry it is the most secure operating system used in leading Smartphones developed by BlackBerry company. It also support WAP 1.2. The latest version of Blackberry is blackberry OS 10.3.3 which was released in 2016 .