Latest Computer Network Types and its Function

Computer Network

Latest Computer Network Types and its Function-: Networking is a technique which is used to make personal computer to multi user behaviour .Though the computers having single user multi tasking operating system or network operating system (NOS).By sharing the resources and peripheral devices more than one user can work at a single resource or device.

Need for Computer Network

The purpose of a computer network is to share resources:

  • You can play a CD music from one computer while sitting on another computer.
  • You may have a computer with a CD writer or a backup system but the other computer doesn’t have it. In this case, you can burn CDs or make backups on a computer that has one of these but using data from a computer that doesn’t have a CD writer or a backup system.
  • You may have a computer that doesn’t have a DVD Player. In this case, you can place a movie DVD on the computer that has a DVD player, and then view the movie on a computer that lacks a DVD player. 
  • You can connect a printer ( or a scanner , or a fax machine)to one computer and let other computers of the network print (or scan, or fax) to that printer (or scanner, or fax machine). 
  • You can place a CD with pictures on one computer and let other computers access those pictures. 

Benefits of Computer Network

  • File sharing is the major advantage of a computer network. A person sitting at one workstation of a network can easily see the files present one the other workstation. It saves the time that is wasted in copying a file from one system to another, by using a storage device. 
  • Accessing remote files is another advantage of a computer network. People can access or update the information stored in a database, making it up-to-date and accurate. 
  • Internet services, e-mail and video conferencing are the great feature of a computer network. 
  • Another important benefit of a computer network is resources sharing. A number of people can share device like printer , modem etc for their personal computer in a family or in office. 
  • A computer network increase the storage capacity as there is more than one computer on a network which can easily share file,  so files can be stored or any computer in the network. 
  • Storing files in a server allows data to be shared easily. 

Network components are those major parts that are needed to install a network . Before that understand how data is transmitted on a network, is important to know various components that compose a network.

Components of computer network

Some of them are discussed below: 
  • Client Any computer that is part of a common network other than the server is called as client. 
  • Server Any computer that holds shared files, programs and the network operating system is called server. 
  • Network Cable These are the physical device through which various components of a computer network are connected with each other. This is also known as bus. 
  • Network Interface Card (NIC) It is also known as adaptor. NIC regulates the exchange of data between the network and the computers. 
  • Protocol A set of rules is called protocol. Network protocol is standardised set of rules, used for transmission of data and/or establish  communication between them. 
  • Resources The hardwares that are available to a computer on a particular network are known as resources. 

Types of Computer Network

The network is divided on various grounds .There are mainly the following types of them:-

  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)

Local Area Network (LAN)

Land Area Network

LAN is a small and single site network. A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. It is a system in which computers are interconnected and the geographical area such as home, office ,buildings, school maybe within a building or around 1km.

All the terminals are connected to a main computer called server. On most LANs ,cables are used to connect the computers . LANs are typically owned , controlled and managed by a single person or organisation.

They also use certain specific connectivity technologies , primarily Ethernet and Token Ring.Print server allows LAN users to share compiler programs and data. Data transfer rate in LAN is 10 to 100 Mbps .LAN provides a sharing of peripherals in an efficient or effective way.

Components of LAN 
Components of LAN Network
  • Peer -to – peer Network 
  • Client server Network 
Peer -to -peer Network 
Peer To Peer Network

This LAN network occurs when two or more computers are directly connected to each other. Suppose if there were four computers in the network, the computer 1 would be connected to computer 2 , computer 2 would be connected to computer 3 and computer 3 would be connected to computer 4.

This means each computer is dependent on the other and if there were a network problem with anyone computer, all of them would be affected.

Client Server Network
Client Server Network

This is the type of connection where all the computers in a given network or connected to one central computer.

This is a more complicated network but is efficient then peer -to -peer. 

Characteristics of LANs
  • Coverage area is generally a few kilometers.
  • Using different dedicated transmission medium you can achieve the transmission rate of 1 Mb/s to 100 Mb/sec or higher, with the further development of LAN technology is currently being developed toward higher speed example 155 mbps, 655 mbps and 1000 mbps etc.
  • In LAN you can run the multiple devices to share the transmission medium.
  • You can use the different Topology mainly bus and ring in LAN.
  • The communication quality is better than in LAN, the transmission error rate are low as compare to WAN.
  • LAN supports a variety of communications transmission medium such as a Ethernet cable (thin cable, thick cable and twisted pair) fiber and wireless transmission.
  • A LAN usually has low cost, installation, expansion and maintenance and LAN installation is relatively simple ,good scalability.
Advantages of Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Local area network allowed sharing of expensive resources such as coloured laser printers and high capacity high speed mass storage device among a number of users.
  • Local area network allowed for high speed exchange of essential information between key people in an organisation if properly manage this sharing will promote greater efficiency and productivity and will lead to more sophisticated application such as electronic mail and companies website.
  • Local and area network provide the catalyst to increase the range of potential application for the IBM PCS where an application package can be used by users.
  • LANs contribute to increase productivity LAN installation should be studied closely in the context of its propose contribution to the long range interest of the organisation.
Disadvantages of Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Some control on the part of the user is lost you may have to share a printer with other users you may face a situation like for example the entire network suddenly locking a because one user has made a mistake.
  • Some type of security system must be implemented if it is important to protect confidential data.
  • The financial cost of local area networking is still high if one plan to use a network to share a laser printer the user might find it cheaper to purchase another laser printer then to purchase networking hardware and software.
  • Local area networking software required memories space in each of computers used on the network for and IBM PC computer with 256 megabyte of main memory in an IBM token ring network that has a printer or this space shared with other users almost 10% of the computers memory will be needed to manage this reduces the memory space available for the user program.
  • Local area networking ads another level of complexity to the computer operation users may have difficult in learning the network commands the installation and the management of a LAN require for more technical and ministrative skill then installing and managing serveral computers that are not networked.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Metropolitan Area Network

It is a data network designed for a town or city . It connects an area larger than a LAN ,but smaller than a WAN, such as a city ,which dedicated or high performance hardware . Its main purpose is to share hardware and software resources by the various users .

Cable TV network is an example of Metropolitan Area Network. The computers in a MAN are connected using co-axial cable or fiber optic cables.

Advantages Of MAN 

  • Less Expensive:- It is less expensive to attach MAN with WAN network . MAN gives you good efficiency of data . All data on MAN is easily manageable in a centralised way.
  • Sending Local Emails:- You can send local email fast and free on MAN.
  • High speed than WAN:- The speed of data can easily rich 1000 Mbps as MAN uses fibre optics. Files and database transfer rates are fast.
  • Sharing of network:- With the installation of MANs user can share their internet connection in this way multiple users can get the same high speed internet.
  • Conversation of LAN to MAN is easy :- MAN is a combination of two or more LAN network. So it is a faster way to connect to LAN network together.
  • High security :- MANs has a high security level than WAN.

Disadvantages of MAN

  • DifficulttoManage:- it is very difficult to manage if the size and number of LAN network increase this is due to security and extra configuration problem.
  • InternetSpeedDifference:- As it cannot work on phone copper wires copper wire affect the speed of MAN so high cost is needed for fiber optics.
  • Hackers Attact :- In this network there is a high risk of attacking hackers as compared to LAN. So data maybe a leak highly security stop is needed in MAN.
  • Technical Staff Requires To Set Up :- highly technical people required to set up MAN the technical people are network administrators and troubleshooters.
  • Need More Wires :- In MAN more than LAN network, cables require . As you know it is a combination of two LAN.

 Wide Area Network (WAN)

Wide Area Network

It is a geographically dispersed collection of LANs. The Internet can be considered as WAN as well. A WAN like internet, can expand most of the word . A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN .

These kinds of network new telephone lines, satellite links and other long range communication technologies to connect (as communication media) 

Like the LANs , most WANs are not owned by any one organisation, but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and Management .WANs use technology like ATM, frame relay and X.25 for connectivity.

Advantages of WAN

  • WAN covers larger geographical area. Hence business offices situated at longer distance can easily communicate.
  • Like LAN it allow sharing of resources and application software among distributed workstation or users.
  • The software files are shared among all the users .Hence all will have access to last files. This avoid use of previous version by them.
  • Organisation can form their global integrated network through WAN . Moreover it support global markets and global business.
  • The emergence of lot (internet of things) and advance wireless technology such as LAN  or LAN advance have made it easy for the growth of WAN based device message can be send very quickly across the globe with the help of application such as WhatsApp, Facebook ,messenger etc.

Disadvantages of WAN 

  • Initial investment cost are higher.
  • It is difficult to maintain the network it requires skill techniques and network administrators.
  • There are more errors and issue due to white coverage and use of different technologies .Often it require more time to resolve issue due to environment of multiple wire and wireless technologies.
  • It has lower security compare to LAN and MAN due to wider coverage and use of more technologies.
  • Security is big concern and requires use of firewall and security software/protocol at multiple points across the entire system.

Difference between LAN , MAN and WAN 

Full form of LAN is Local Area Network.Full form of MAN is Metropolitan Area Network.Full form of WAN is Wide Area Network .
LAN is a group of computers and other network devices which are connected together.MAN is a larger network of computers and other network devices which are connected together usually spans several buildings or large geographical area.WAN is a group of computers and other network devices which are connected together which is not restricted to a geographical location internet is WAN.
All the device that are part of LAN are within a building or multiple building.All the devices that are part of MAN are span across building or small town .All the devices that are part of WAN have no geographical boundaries.
LAN network has very high speed mainly due to proximity of computer and network devices.MAN network has lower speed compared to LAN .WAN speed varies based on geographical location of the servers WAN contacts several LANs.
LAN connection speeds can be 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps also.MAN connection speeds can be 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps.WAN connection speed can be 10 MBPS or 100 MBPS or slow about 15 MBPS (may very based on wireless technology is used).
LAN use Guided Media .MAN uses Guided media or Unguided media. WAN mainly uses Guided Media or Unguided Media.

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Pooja Rastogi

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