Internet Of Things (IOT) in 2023-: IOT is a network in which all physical objects or connected to the Internet through network devices and exchange data. IOT allows objects to be controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure. The goal of IOT to extend to internet connectivity from Standard devices like computer, mobile, tablet to relatively dumb devices like a toaster. Advancement in medicine, power, gene therapies, agriculture, smart cities and smart homes are few example where IOT is strongly established.
The Internet of Things is the extension of internet connectivity into physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with electronics, internet connectivity and other forms of hardware, these devices can communicate and interact with other over the internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled. For example, if you have an IOT based refrigerator, it will let you know about your diet by monitoring your health previously and suggest you best meals with available food stuff.
History of IOT
- 1970: The actual idea of connected devices was proposed.
- 1990 John Romkey: Created a toaster which could be turned on/off over the internet.
- 1995: Siemens introduced the first cellular module built for M2M [Machine to Machine]
- 1999: The term “Internet of Things” was used by Kevin Ashton during his work at P&G which became widely accepted.
- 2004: The term was mentioned in famous publications like the Guardian, Boston Globe, and Scientific American.
- 2005: UN’s International Telecommunication Union (ITU) published its first report on this topic.
- 2008: The Internet Of Things was born.
- 2011: Gartner, the market research company, include “The Internet of Things” technology in their research.
Evolution of IOT
- Pre-Internet: In the pre-internet era, most of the human to human communication was through fixed and mobile telephony.
- Sunrise of Internet: With the origin of Internet the world changed at once. We could be continents apart still share vital information at just the click of a button.
- Internet of People: After the invention of blogging, social media began to explode in popularity. Sites like MySpace and LinkedIn gained prominence in the early 2000s. YouTube came out in 2005, creating an entirely new way for people to communicate and share with each other across great distances.
Birth of IOT
Nearly all of the data available on the Internet today was first captured and created by human beings. The problem is, people have limited time, attention, and accuracy, which means they are not very good at capturing data about things in the real world, So, if we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things, using data they gathered without any help from us, we would be able to tract and count everything and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost and this is what gave birth to “Internet of Things”.
Components of IOT
There are four fundamental components of IOT system as follows :
- Sensor / Device – Sensor aur device are key component that help you to collect life data from surrounding environment all these data may have various level of complexities it could be a simple temperature monitoring sensor or it may be in the form of video feed.
- Connectivity – all the collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure the sensor should be connected to the cloud using various media of communication these communication media include mobile or satellites network Bluetooth Wi-Fi w a n etc.
- Data Processing – once the data is collected and it gets to the cloud the software perform processing on the gathered data this process can be just checking the temperature reading on device like AC or heaters however it can sometimes also be very complex like identifying object using computer vision
- User Interface – The information made availableThe information made available tothe information made available to the end user in some ways this can achieved by figurine alarms on their phones or notifying through text or email also a user sometime might also have an interface through which they can actively check in on their IOT system.
The IOT Architecture generally comprises of these 4 stages
- Sensors/Actuators – I thing in the context of internet of things should be equipped with sensors and actuators thus giving the ability to emit, accept and process signals.
- Data Acquistion Systems – The data from the sensor start in analogue form which needs to be aggregated and converted into digital stream for further processing. Data acquistion system perform these data aggregation and conversion function.
- Edge Analytics – Once IOT data has been ditize and aggregated it may require for the processing before it enter the data centre this is where its analytic come in.
- Cloud Analytics – data that needs more in depth processing gets forward to Physical data centres or cloud based system.
Advantages of IOT
There are following advantages of IOT as follow
- Technical Optimization – IOT technology helps a lot in improving technologies and making better them better.
- Reduce Waste – IOT offers real time information leading to effective decision making and management of resources.
- improve customer engagement – IOT allow you to improve customer experience by detecting problem and improving the process.
- Improved Data Collection – Traditional Data Collection has its limitation and its design for passive use.
Disadvantages of IOT
- Security – As the IOT systems are interconnected and communicate over network the system of a little control describe any security measure it can lead the various kinds of network attacks.
- Privacy – Even without deactive participation of the user IOC system provide substantial personal data in maximum detail.
- Complexity – The designing, developing, maintaining and enabling the large technology to IOT system is quite complicated.
- Wearable – Wearable technology is a Hallmark of IOT application to have deployed the IOT at its service. Using this wearable application, to see Fit Bits, heart rate monitors and smart watches everywhere these days.
- another wearable app include glucose monitoring device- It detect glucose levels in the body, using a tiny electrode called glucose sensor placed under the skin and relays the information via radio frequency to a monitoring device.
- Smart Home – When we talk about IOT application smartphones are probably the first thing that we think of the number of people searching for smartphones increases every month with about 60000 peoples and reading another interesting thing is that the database of a smart home for IOT analytics include 25 companies and start more companies are now actively being invoice in a smart home then similar other application in the field of IOT.
- Connected Car – Connected car technology is a vast and and an extensive network of multiple sensor, Antennas software, and technologies embedded in vehicles that assist in communication to navigate in our Complex Road network. It has the responsibility of making a decision with consistency, accuracy, speed, collision alarm etc.
- Health Care – IOT application can turn reactive medical base system into protective Wellness base system IOT application range from remote patient monitoring equipment in advance and automated electronic health record it has the potential to improve how physician deliver care and also keep patient safe and healthy from personal fitnes sensor to surgical robot iot in health care bring new tool updated with the latest technology in the ecosystem that helps in developing better health care iot have in revolutionizing Healthcare and provide economic solution for the patient and health care professional.
- Smart Cities – A Smart City project covers are larger are of smart smart smartification making and impact on thousand of human daily life application focus on issue like drinking water traffic parking space sound pollution Deteriorating air quality and increasing urban density it has numerous other applications targetting various other issue in city and their effect is city differently the government and indirect can use IOT to analyse the obtained Complex factors of town planning specific to each City the use of iot application can areas like water management sound pollution waste control and emergencies.
- Smart Agriculture – There are numerous possibility in agriculture. One of them is the smart greenhouse. A Greenhouse farming technique enhance the yield of crops why controlling environmental parameter many country are encouraging their commerce to use smart agriculture instead of manual handling that can dessert introduction loss energy loss and labour cost.
- Industrial Automation – This is one of the fields where both faster developments, as well as the quality of products, are the critical factors for a higher return on investment. With IOT applications, one could even re- engineer product and their packaging to deliver better performance both cost and customer experience.