Input Devices Of Computer And Their Function

computer input devices
computer input devices

What is input device?

Input Device of omputer and their function- Data and instructions are entered into a computer through input devices. An input deviceconverts input data and instructions into a suitable binary form which is stored in the memory of a computer. The most commonly used input device is the keyboard. A number of other input devices, also known as pointing devices, have also been developed which do not require data entry by typing. Examples include mouse, light pen, graphic tablet, joy stick, track ball, touch screen, etc. 

Function Of Input Device

An input device performs the following functions
(i) It accepts the instructions and data from the user.
(ii) It converts these instructions and data in computer in acceptable format.
(iii) It supplies the converted instructions and data to the computer system for further processing

Some Example Of Input Device

  1. Keyboard
  2. Mouse
  3. Joystick
  4. Trackball
  5. Scanner
  6. Barcode Reader
  7. MICR
  8. OMR
  9. Web Camera
  10. Biometric Sensor


keyboard is one of the most common input devices. The user can type text and command using this device. The layout of the keyboard was borrowed from the regular typewriter with some additional keys. Keyboard is used to enter data or information in a computer system, which may be in numeric form or alphabetic form. There are different types of keyboard such as QWERTY, DVORAK and AZERTY.

Types Of Keys On Keyboard

  1. Alphanumeric key :- Include the alphabet key(A, B ,c……z and number keys(1,2,3……….9).
  2. Number key :- Are located at the hand side of the keyboard. they consist of digits and mathematical operators.
  3. Function key :-Are the programmable key, they are numbered from f1 to f12.
  4. Cursor control key :- Include four directional (left, right, up, down) .                  there are four more keys to control the cursor                                                        home,  end, page up, page down. 
  5. Other keys :A key board contain some other keys such as follow………..               
  6. control key- It performs a special operation with the combination of other key. 
  7.  Enter key- It is used to finish an entry and begin the new entry in a document.
  8.  Shift key- Shift key is used to print the symbols on which is printed on the numeric pad on the upper portion. 
  9. Escape key- It allows a user to cancel or abort operation . 
  10. Backspace key- It is used to erase anything typed.
  11. Delete key- It is used to erase information from the computer. 
  12. Caps lock key- It is used to type the alphabet in capital letters. 
  13. Num lock key- It is used to unable or disable the numeric keypad.
  14. window key- It is used to open the Start Menu. 
  15. Spacebar key- it provides a space between two words . it is the longest key.
  16. Tab key- it is used to the cursor over to the right to the pre-set point . 
Keyboard-input device


Mouse-  The mouse is a pointing device that allows to control the movement of pointer (also known as mouse pointer) on screen. Mouse performs various functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relatively to its supporting surface. A mouse can be of different types like wired, wireless mouse, optical mouse, mechanical mouse etc. Generally a mouse have two buttons – a right button and left button. mouse also include a scroll wheel between the button to scroll down the application window and their contents also

Different Types Of Mouse

  1. Optical mouse
  2. Mechanical mouse
  3. Wireless mouse
mouse input device

Mouse Action

Left Click           : Used to select an item.
Double Click     : Used to start a program or open a file.
Right Click         : Usually used to display a set of commands.
Drag and Drop : It allows you to select and move an item from one location another.

“Mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart at Stanford Research Centre in 1963“. Optical Mouse was Introduced by Microsoft in 1999. It uses a light beam to detect the Movement


joystick– is also a pointing device like the mouse, which consists of a stick that pivots on a spherical ball on its base. A joystick is similar to a mouse excepts that the moment of cursor on screen stops working as soon as user stop moving the mouse. But with a joystick, the pointer continuous moving in the previously pointing direction. Commonly, joysticks are used for playing computer games like flight simulators but occasionally used for CAD/CAM systems and other applications. 

joystick-input device


Trackball- is designed for computers, generally mouse replacement. It is primarily used to move the cursor on the screen. The Trackball has a ball on its top. Trackball Trackball can be rolled with fingers and the internal rollers sense the motion, which is transmitted to the computer. Trackballs are common on CAD workstations and sometimes seen on computerized special purpose work stations, such as the radar consoles in an air-traffic control room or sonar equipment on a submarine.

Trackball- input device


Scanner- read or display the scanned object. Scanners can be used for storing the documents in their original form that can be modified and manipulated later on. It is mainly used to convert a scanned document in a digital format. Scanners come in a variety of sizes from hand-held models to desktop models as discussed below:

(i) Hand-held Scanner
(ii) Flatbed Scanners
(iii) Drum Scanners

scanner- input device

 Barcode Reader

Barcode reader– It is an input device used for reading printed bar codes (Universal Product Code) available on product to be sold. A bar code reader emits a beam of light, which reflects off the bar code image.  A light sensitive detector in the barcode reader the see  identifies the bar code image by recognising special bars at both the ends of the image. 

Barcode -input device


(Magnetic Ink Character Recognition)-MICR reads the characters by examining their shapes in a matrix form and the information is then passed on to the computer. The characters are printed using a special ink, which contains iron particles that can be magnetised. It is generally used in banks to process the cheques for recognising the magnetic encoding numbers printed a the bottom of a cheques.

input device of computer
MICR -input device


Optical Mark Readers (OMR) are special scanners used for recognising a pre specified type of mark made by pencil or pen. For example, in the objective test paper of DOEACC (Department of Electronics Accreditation for Computer Courses), you mark your answers on a special sheet by darkening a small square, using a pen or pencil. These answer sheets are fed into the computer using the optical mark reader. The computer can then evaluate the answer sheets.

input device of computer
OMR -input device


Web Camera

Web camera- Allows a computer to accept input just by focusing on an object. The camera is focused on the input object to take a picture of the object. A picture so taken can be transferred over the computer network to a distant place. The image of the object can be seen on the monitor of the distant computer connected through a network or through the Internet.

input device of computer
Web camera -input device

 Biometric Sensor

Biometric sensor– It is a device which recognises physical or behavioural traits of the individual. Biometric sensors are mainly used marking Biometric attendance of employees/ students in organisations /institutions. Biometric sensors are working with accuracy  so these are  widely used in security purpose also.

biometric- input device


About the author

Pooja Rastogi

Leave a Comment