Generation Of Computer 1st To 5th : With Example

Computers Generation
Computers Generation

What Is Computer Generation? 

Generation Of Computer 1st To 5th : With Example– In early period there are big rooms that serve as Computer Centers where many Computers are installed for data processing. With the invent of digital convergence, it grows towards computer networks with large number of separate interconnected computers at sing/multiple locations that are used for sharing resources such as data, programs and equipment with anyone on similar network, irrespective of physical location of user and resources.

First Generation(1945-1955)

vacuum tube
1.Generation period(1945-1955).
2.Switching DeviceVacuum Tube.
3.Storage DeviceMegnetic Drums.
4.Speed333micro seconds.
5.Operating SystemBatch operating system.
6.LanguageMachine language(Binary number ‘0’s and 1’s).
7.CharacteristicsFastest computing Device.
8.ApplicationUsed for Scienticfic purpose e.g. ENIAC,UNIVAC,MARK-1.

Merits of First Generation Computers

  • This generation of computers was the fastest in computing work.
  • Due to the Vacuum tube the concept of electronic digital computer of the present era was realized.
  • Counts were done in millisecond.

Demerits Of First Generation Computers

  • were big and clumsy.
  • Require large ACs.
  • Shows lot of electricity failure.
  • Punch card was used for input and output.

Second Generation(1955-1964)

1.Generation Period(1955-1964)
2.Switching DeviceTransistor(Made Of Semiconductor).
3.Storage DeviceMagnetic Core Technology
4.Speed10micro seconds
5.Operatig SystemTime Sharing System,Multitasking Os’.
6.LanguageAssembly Language, High level Language.
7.CharacteristicsMore reliable and Less Pone Failure Portable And generate less Amount Of Heat
8.ApplicationUsed For Commercial Production e.g. PDP-8,IBM–1400 etc.

Merits Of Second Generation Computers

  • Were faster than the First Generation computer.
  • Developed the first operating system.
  • Smaller in size than the First Generation computers.
  • consume less heat &electricity.

Demerits Of Second Generation Computers

  • Business manufacturing of computer was expensive.
  • Air conditioning was still needed.
  • Business application of these computer was expensive

Third Generation(1964-1974)

integrated circuits (ICs)
1.Generation Period(1964-1974)
2.Switching DeviceIntegrated Circuits (ICs) (Made Of Silicon).
3.Storage deviceMagnetic Core As Primary Storage Medium.
4.Speed100 nano second.
5.Operating SystemReal-Time System.
6.LanguageHigh Level Language(FORTRON, COBOL, ALGOL)
7.CharacteristicsConsumed Less power, Highly Sophisticated Technology Requird.
8.ApplicationDatabase Management System e.g. NCR-395,B6500. etc.

Merits Of Third Generation Computers

  • It is smaller in size than the first and second generation computers.
  • Uses less power consumption.
  • Uses SSI & MSI technology.
  • The calculation speed was extremely fast. This computer could also calculate in Nano seconds. 

Demerits Of Third Generation Computers

  • Air condition still needed.
  • The technic of making ICs was extremely complex.
  • Highly sophisticated technic require.

Fourth Generation(1975-1989)

very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI)
1.Generation Period (1975-1989)
2.Switching Device Large Scale Integrated (LSI) Circuit & VLSI Microprocessor
3.Storage Device Semi conductor memory, Winchester disk.
4.Speed 300 Nano Seconds
5.Operating System Time sharing, GUI Interface.
7.Charcteristics More reliable and portable. this Generation Lead.
8.Application Distributed system, e.g. Intel 4004 chip Macintosh.

Merits Of Fourth Generation Computers

  • These computers are much smaller than the older generation computers.
  • No air conditioning is require & Reachable by all due to low cost price.
  • maintenance costs are very  low.
  • Uses different types of memories with very high accessing speed & storage capacity.
  • Are virtual reality, multimedia, simulation.
  • were portable and comes in use for data communication.

Demerits Of Fourth Generation Computers

  • For the manufacturing of microprocessor latest technology was required.
  • Due to ICS in many cases air conditioning was required.
  • High quality and reliable system or technology can make only ICs.

Fifth Generation (1989 till date)

1.Generation Period(1989-Till Date)
2.Switching DeviceSuper large scale integrated (SLSI) chip
3.Storage DeviceOptical disk
4.Speed1 billion bytes memory with a speed of 1.5 billion bytes a second
5.Operating SystemKnowledge Information Processing System
6.LanguageHigh level programming language such as – C# , Java, python, etc.
7.Characteristicsparallel processing, Inter core microprocessor is implemented, Enables megachip
8.ApplicationArtificial Intelligence e.g. robotics

 Merits Of Fifth Generation Computers

  • Are used in parallel processing and superconductors.
  • They used artificial Intelligence where they will use their own IQ too solve a problem at end.
  • Used for scientific, commercial interactive online application, multimedia and network application.
  • Are used in intelligent robot. 

Demerits Of Fifth Generation Computers

  • In future Human will face unemployment using robot because robots will work in their place.
  • They tend to be sophisticated and complex tools.
  • The manufacturing of robot is very expensive


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Pooja Rastogi

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