Formula & Function in MS-Excel-:A Formula is an expression which calculate the value of a cell. Functions are predefined formula and are already available in Excel.

Using a formula, expressions can be calculated by typing the formula in the appropriate cell:-

**For example:-** D3+ E6 Asia formula that adds the cell content of cell D3 to the cell content of self E6. The formula must be preceded by an equal to (=) sign. You can calculate different expressions using different operators in MS-Excel.

**Functions **

A Function is a three define formula that perform calculation using specific value in a particular order. Example SQRT (), LOWER (), etc. Functions make it easy to perform common calculations on data.

**Using Function **

To use the function in work sheet, you have to fo-llow the follow steps:

- Active the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
- Two type the formula with the help of function click on auto some button on the standard toolbar.
- Click on the down arrow head write next to the function box to invoke a drop down list of available function which included SUM, COUNT, AVERAGE and MAX.
- Click on the function you want to add the formula. If the function does not appeared in the list click on more function.
- Enter the arguments for the function.
- When you completely formula press the enter key.
- The Other convenient way of choosing function is by using the function that appear on the standard toolbar as
**fx**symbol.

**Function**

**Today:-**It is used to display the current date.**Weekday:-**this function is used to display the day of week corresponding given date.**Days360:-**this company is used to display the number of day between 2 Days.**Rept:-**Function is used to Rept the given text to a specified number of times.**Round:-**It is used for round the value if 5 or above 5 by adding 1 in the left digit and if below 5 without adding 1 round the decimal value up to given place if given place negative round the integer value.**Count:-**It is used to count the numeric and alphabet both.**Countify:-**Is used to count only given value (criteria).**Product:-**This multiple of given numbers.**Power:-**the number raises to a given power.**Mod:-**This function return the remainder of a division.

**Functions in MS Excel**

**SUM():-**It is a mathematical function used to add the numeric value in a range of cells. A maximum of 30 arguments can be provided.**Syntax = SUM (number 1, number 2,…….)****AVERAGE():-**Calculates and return the average of the numeric values in the range of cells.**Syntax = AVERAGE (****number 1, number 2,…….)****MAX ():-**Returns the largest value in the range.**Syntax = MAX (number 1, number 2,……….)****MIN ():-**Returns the lowest value in the range.**Syntax = MIN (number 1, number 2,…….)****COUNT():-**Counts the number of cells that contain number in a specified range.**Syntax = COUNT (value 1, value 2,…….)****ABS():-**ABS () function return the absolute value of number the absolute value of number is the number without any + or – sign.**Syntax = ABS (number 1, number 2,…….)****SQRT ():-**SQRT () returns a positive square root a number.**Syntax = SQRT (number 1, number 2,…….)****NOW() :-**Returns the current date and time value return by Now() function will change each time when worksheet is recalculated.**Syntax = NOW (number 1, number 2,…….)****LEFT ()****:-**Returns the specified number of characters on the left side of a tax exchange if the number is not a specified that return the first character.**Syntax = LEFT (number 1, number 2,…….)****RIGHT () :-**Returns the specified number of character from the right side of a text string if the number is not specified it return the last character.**Syntax = RIGHT (number 1, number 2,…….)****MID() :-**Returns as specified number of character is starting from a specified position in a text string.**Syntax = MID (number 1, number 2,…….)****UPPER():-**Converts all lowercase letters in a text string to uppercase.**Syntax = UPPER (number 1, number 2,…….)****LOWER () :-**Converts all the uppercase letter in a text string to lowercase.**Syntax = LOWER (number 1, number 2,…….)****LEN () :-**Returns the length of a text string. Spaces are counted as character.**Syntax = LEN (number 1, number 2,…….)****PROPER():-**Convert the first letter of each word in a string to upper case and remaining letters of lowercase.**Syntax = PROPER (number 1, number 2,…….)**

**Formula Operators **

There are four different types of formula operators: arithmetic, comparison, text concatenation and reference.

**Arithmetic Operators:- **To perform basic mathematical operation such as addition, subtractions, multiplication, combine number and produce numeric results, arithmetic operators are used. Some arithmetic operators and their meaning are as follows:

A Formula is an expression which calculate the value of a cell. Functions are predefined formula and are already available in Excel.

Using a formula, expressions can be calculated by typing the formula in the appropriate cell:-

**For example:-** D3+ E6 Asia formula that adds the cell content of cell D3 to the cell content of self E6. The formula must be preceded by an equal to (=) sign. You can calculate different expressions using different operators in MS-Excel.

**Functions **

A Function is a three define formula that perform calculation using specific value in a particular order. Example SQRT (), LOWER (), etc. Functions make it easy to perform common calculations on data.

**Using Function **

To use the function in work sheet, you have to follow the follow steps:

- Active the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
- Two type the formula with the help of function click on auto some button on the standard toolbar.
- Click on the down arrow head write next to the function box to invoke a drop down list of available function which included SUM, COUNT, AVERAGE and MAX.
- Click on the function you want to add the formula. If the function does not appeared in the list click on more function.
- Enter the arguments for the function.
- When you completely formula press the enter key.
- The Other convenient way of choosing function is by using the function that appear on the standard toolbar as
**fx**symbol.

**Function**

**Today:-**It is used to display the current date.**Weekday:-**this function is used to display the day of week corresponding given date.**Days360:-**this company is used to display the number of day between 2 Days.**Rept:-**Function is used to Rept the given text to a specified number of times.**Round:-**It is used for round the value if 5 or above 5 by adding 1 in the left digit and if below 5 without adding 1 round the decimal value up to given place if given place negative round the integer value.**Count:-**It is used to count the numeric and alphabet both.**Countify:-**Is used to count only given value (criteria).**Product:-**This multiple of given numbers.**Power:-**the number raises to a given power.**Mod:-**This function return the remainder of a division.

**Functions in MS Excel**

**SUM():-**It is a mathematical function used to add the numeric value in a range of cells. A maximum of 30 arguments can be provided.**Syntax = SUM (number 1, number 2,……….)****AVERAGE():-**Calculates and return the average of the numeric values in the range of cells.**Syntax = AVERAGE (****number 1, number 2,……….)****MAX ():-**Returns the largest value in the range.**Syntax = MAX (number 1, number 2,……….)****MIN ():-**Returns the lowest value in the range.**Syntax = MIN (number 1, number 2,……….)****COUNT():-**Counts the number of cells that contain number in a specified range.**Syntax = COUNT (value 1, value 2,……….)****ABS():-**ABS () function return the absolute value of number the absolute value of number is the number without any + or – sign.**Syntax = ABS (number 1, number 2,…….)****SQRT ():-**SQRT () returns a positive square root a number.**Syntax = SQRT (number 1, number 2,…….)****NOW() :-**Returns the current date and time value return by Now() function will change each time when worksheet is recalculated.**Syntax = NOW (number 1, number 2,…….)****LEFT ()****:-**Returns the specified number of characters on the left side of a tax exchange if the number is not a specified that return the first character.**Syntax = LEFT (number 1, number 2,…….)****RIGHT () :-**Returns the specified number of character from the right side of a text string if the number is not specified it return the last character.**Syntax = RIGHT (number 1, number 2,…….)****MID() :-**Returns as specified number of character is starting from a specified position in a text string.**Syntax = MID (number 1, number 2,…….)****UPPER():-**Converts all lowercase letters in a text string to uppercase.**Syntax = UPPER (number 1, number 2,…….)****LOWER () :-**Converts all the uppercase letter in a text string to lowercase.**Syntax = LOWER (number 1, number 2,…….)****LEN () :-**Returns the length of a text string. Spaces are counted as character.**Syntax = LEN (number 1, number 2,…….)****PROPER():-**Convert the first letter of each word in a string to upper case and remaining letters of lowercase.**Syntax = PROPER (number 1, number 2,……….)**

**Formula Operators **

There are four different types of formula operators: arithmetic, comparison, text concatenation and reference.

**Arithmetic Operators:- **To perform basic mathematical operation such as addition, subtractions, multiplication, combine number and produce numeric results, arithmetic operators are used. Some arithmetic operators and their meaning are as follows:

A Formula is an expression which calculate the value of a cell. Functions are predefined formula and are already available in Excel.

Using a formula, expressions can be calculated by typing the formula in the appropriate cell:-

**For example:-** D3+ E6 Asia formula that adds the cell content of cell D3 to the cell content of self E6. The formula must be preceded by an equal to (=) sign. You can calculate different expressions using different operators in Ms-Excel.

**Functions **

A Function is a three define formula that perform calculation using specific value in a particular order. Example SQRT (), LOWER (), etc. Functions make it easy to perform common calculations on data.

**Using Function **

To use the function in work sheet, you have to follow the follow steps:

- Active the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
- Two type the formula with the help of function click on auto some button on the standard toolbar.
- Click on the down arrow head write next to the function box to invoke a drop down list of available function which included SUM, COUNT, AVERAGE and MAX.
- Click on the function you want to add the formula. If the function does not appeared in the list click on more function.
- Enter the arguments for the function.
- When you completely formula press the enter key.
- The Other convenient way of choosing function is by using the function that appear on the standard toolbar as
**fx**symbol.

**Function**

**Today:-**It is used to display the current date.**Weekday:-**this function is used to display the day of week corresponding given date.**Days360:-**this company is used to display the number of day between 2 Days.**Rept:-**Function is used to Rept the given text to a specified number of times.**Round:-**It is used for round the value if 5 or above 5 by adding 1 in the left digit and if below 5 without adding 1 round the decimal value up to given place if given place negative round the integer value.**Count:-**It is used to count the numeric and alphabet both.**Count if:-**Is used to count only given value (criteria).**Product:-**This multiple of given numbers.**Power:-**the number raises to a given power.**Mod:-**This function return the remainder of a division.

**Functions in MS Excel**

**SUM():-**It is a mathematical function used to add the numeric value in a range of cells. A maximum of 30 arguments can be provided.**Syntax = SUM (number 1, number 2,……….)****AVERAGE():-**Calculates and return the average of the numeric values in the range of cells.**Syntax = AVERAGE (****number 1, number 2,……….)****MAX ():-**Returns the largest value in the range.**Syntax = MAX (number 1, number 2,……….)****MIN ():-**Returns the lowest value in the range.**Syntax = MIN (number 1, number 2,……….)****COUNT():-**Counts the number of cells that contain number in a specified range.**Syntax = COUNT (value 1, value 2,……….)****ABS():-**ABS () function return the absolute value of number the absolute value of number is the number without any + or – sign.**Syntax = ABS (number 1, number 2,…….)****SQRT ():-**SQRT () returns a positive square root a number.**Syntax = SQRT (number 1, number 2,…….)****NOW() :-**Returns the current date and time value return by Now() function will change each time when worksheet is recalculated.**Syntax = NOW (number 1, number 2,…….)****LEFT ()****:-**Returns the specified number of characters on the left side of a tax exchange if the number is not a specified that return the first character.**Syntax = LEFT (number 1, number 2,…….)****RIGHT () :-**Returns the specified number of character from the right side of a text string if the number is not specified it return the last character.**Syntax = RIGHT (number 1, number 2,…….)****MID() :-**Returns as specified number of character is starting from a specified position in a text string.**Syntax = MID (number 1, number 2,…….)****UPPER():-**Converts all lowercase letters in a text string to uppercase.**Syntax = UPPER (number 1, number 2,…….)****LOWER () :-**Converts all the uppercase letter in a text string to lowercase.**Syntax = LOWER (number 1, number 2,…….)****LEN () :-**Returns the length of a text string. Spaces are counted as character.**Syntax = LEN (number 1, number 2,…….)****PROPER():-**Convert the first letter of each word in a string to upper case and remaining letters of lowercase.**Syntax = PROPER (number 1, number 2,……….)**

**Formula Operators **

There are four different types of formula operators: arithmetic, comparison, text concatenation and reference.

**Arithmetic Operators:- **To perform basic mathematical operation such as addition, subtractions, multiplication, combine number and produce numeric results, arithmetic operators are used. Some arithmetic operators and their meaning are as follows:

Arithmetic Operators | Meaning |

+(plus sign) | Addition |

-(minus sign) | Subtraction or negative |

*(asterisk) | Multiplication |

/(forward slash) | Division |

^(caret) | Exponentiation |

**Comparison Operators:- **You can compare two values with the following operators. When two values are compared by using these operator, the result is a logical value either TRUE or FALSE. Some comparison operators and their meaning as follows:-

Comparison Operators | Meaning |

=(equal sign) | Equal to |

>(greater than sign) | Greater Than |

<(less than sign) | Less Than |

>= (greater than or equal to sign ) | Greater than or equal to |

<= (less than or equal to sign ) | Less than or equal to |

<>, ! = (not equal to sign ) | Not equal to |

**Text Concatenation Operators:- **Use the ampersand (&) to concatenate (combine) one or more text strings to produce a single piece of text.

Text Operators | Meaning |

&(ampersand) | Connects or concatenates two strings to produce one continuous text value |

**Reference Operators:- **To combine the range of cells for various calculations, reference operators are used. Some reference operators and their meaning are as follows:-

Reference Operators | Meaning |

:(colon) | Range operator which produces one reference to all the cells between two references |

,(comma) | Union operator which combine multiple reference into one use reference |

(space) | Intersection operators which returns a reference to the cells common to the ranges in the formula |

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