E-Commerce with Full Explanation


E-Commerce with Full Explanation -: E-commerce (Electronic Commerce Or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the internet. 

E-Commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange, inventory management system and automated Data Collection systems. There is no special software to install other than a web browser and many banks do not charge for this service. 

Types of ECommerce 

E-Commerce business models can generally be categories into the following categories as follows:

Business -to- Business (B2B) 

It applies to businesses buying from and selling to each other over the Internet. Online access of data, including expected shipping date, delivery date and shipping status, provided either by the seller or a third party provided is widely supported by B2B models. It describes transaction between businesses, such as a business between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. 

Now a day B2B service is very important and useful for business class. B2B is a kind of E-commerce in which companies doing business with each other for example manufacturers selling the product to wholesalers selling to retailers. 

Business-to-Consumer (B2C) 

It describes activities of business serving and consumer with products and services. 

Common B2C E-Business models include E-ships and E-mails. An example of a B2C transaction would be a person buying a pair of shoes from a reatiler. 

The transaction that led to the shoes being available for purchase, which is the purchase of the leather, laces, rubber etc. However, the sale of shoes from the shoemaker to the retailer would be considered a (B2C) transaction. 

This is what most people think of when day here “E-Commerce”. B2C consist of business selling to the general public to shopping cart software, without needing any human interaction. An example of this would be

Consumer-to-Business (C2B) 

It applies to any consumer that sells a product or service to a business over the Internet. One example of this E-Business model is where customers set their prices for items such as airline tickets or hotel rooms and sellers decide whether to supply them. The demand for C2B E-Business will increase over the next few years due to customer’s desire for greater convenience at lower price. 

In this system a consumer would post a project or a object with a set budget online, any individual or companies bid on the project. The consumer reviews the bids and selects the suitable companies according to his requirement. 

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)

It involves the electronically facilitated transaction between consumers through third party. A common example is the online auction, in which consumer post an item for a cell and other consumer ID to purchase it, a third party generally charges a Commission. E-Bay is the most successful C2C online auction website.

This type of e-commerce is made up of online classified or forum where individual can buy and sell their goods, thanks to system like PayPal. An example of this would be eBay or OLX.

Business-to-Government (B2G)

B2G model is a variant of B2B model. Such website are used by government to trade and exchange information with various business organisation. Such website are accreated by the government and provide a medium to businesses to submit application forms to the government.

Government-to-Business (G2B)

Governments use G2B model websites to approach business organisation. Such website support auction, tenders and application submission functionalities.


Online etiquette is ingrained into culture, although etiquette in technology is a fairly recent concept. The rules of etiquette that apply when communicating over the internet of social network or device are different from those applied when communicating in person or by audio or video phone. Netiquette refers to internet it is simply means the use of good manners in online communication search as emai, forums, blocks and social networking sites to name of few. It is important to use netiquette because communication only is non- verbal.


It refers to the use by government agencies of Information Technology (such as internet and mobile communicating) that have the ability to transform relation with citizens, business and other arms of government. Through E-governanc, government services are made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner.

Scope of E-Governance

Scope of e-governance can be described as below

1. Government-to-Citizen (G2C)

This relation is the most important aspect of e-governance. This relationship also describes facilities or services provided by the government to Citizen like post, medical, education registrations, passport etc.

Model applies the strategy of customer relationship management CRM with business concept. By managing their relationship with citizen, government can provide the needed products and service full fill the needs from customer/citizens.

2. Government-to-Business (G2B)

This relation tells all aspect of government to business.Business corporate sectors pay taxes  to the government. These payment involve information and communication technology (ICT) reduce time, cost and physically activities to pay taxes and also helps in cross checking the funds.

Benefits of E-Governance

The anticipated benefits of E-Governance incude

  • It greatly simplifies the process of information accumulation for citizens and business.
  • It empowers people together information regarding any department of Government and get involved in the process of decision making.
  • E-governance strengthens the very fabric fabric of democracy by ensuring greater citizen participation at all level of governance.
  • E governance leads to automation of services, ensuring that information regarding every work of public welfare is easily available to or citizens, eliminating corruption.
E-Governance in Railway Reservation

And E-Ticket (electronic ticket) is the Digital ticket equivalent of a paper ticket (IRCTC Indian Railway Catering and Tourism corporation) is used to book and cancel rail tickets.

E governance in railway ticket becomes very useful for general public.By using IRCTC web portal anyone can Reserve his general tatkal and undeserved tickets. Only we need to pay the amount of that through a payment gateway Railway ministry launched and unreserved ticketing system  UTS through app in January 2019.

E-Hospital (ORS)

Online registration system (ORS) is Online Registration Framework portal for talking OPD appointment in the government hospital across the country. It is an Aadhar based online registration and appointment system, where counter based OPD registration and appointment system through Hospital management information system (HMIS) has been digitalized on the Cloud Service of NIC.  Portal facilitates online appointment with various department of different hospitals using e KYC data of Aadhar number, if patient mobile number is registered with UIDAI. And in case mobile number is not registered with UIDAI it uses patient name. New patient will get appointment as well as unit has identification (UHID)number if Aadhaar number is already linked with UHID number then appointment number will be given and UHID will remain same.

Digital Locker

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on first July 2015, launch digital locker facility to help citizen to digitally store their important documents like PAN card , passport, marksheet and degree certificate with the help of this Portal, The Sharing of the E documents will be done through registered repositories their documents online.

On the other hand organisation like the CBSE register office or Income Tax Department can also push electronic copies of documents and certificate directly into your E-locker.

How to use DigiLocker?

To use digilocker follow the below steps.

  • Go to digilocker website or download digilocker app on your phone using Aadhar number and mobile number you can create a user ID using an OTP (One time password).
  • If some organisation has upload of your e-document you can see it in the account you can also upload your own documents and esign.
  • You also get the facility of sharing documents with other by sharing a link to the E document.

You can also join us at QUORA

About the author

Pooja Rastogi

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