Computer Protocol

Computer Protocol

Computer Protocol-:A protocol is a set of rule that govern data communications. A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated and when it is communicated. Generally, some of protocols used to communicate via and internet.

Why the term protocol be main be set of rules or standard designed to enable computer to be connected with one another and to exchange information among them with very little error protocol can describe low level detail of machine to machine interfaces . E.g. the order in which bits and bites are sent across a wire .

the protocol generally accepted for standardising overall computer communication is a 7 layer set of hardware and software guideline known as the OSI (open system interconnection).

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)


The details of TCP/IP are as follows:

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
( TCP )

It provide reliable transport service, that is it ensure that message send from sender to receiver is properly routed. TCP converts messages into a set of packets at the source which are then reassembled back into message at the destination.TCP is an industries standard protocol suit for wide area network .

Internet Protocol (IP)
( IP)

It allow different computers to communicate by creating a network of networks. IP handles the dispatch of packets over the network.It maintains the addressing of packets with multiple is standards.Each IP packet must contain the source and destination address.

Note:- An IP address is 32 bit number.

IP work at the network layer the function it handles and methods it uses are its follows..
  • For addressing, IP uses the logical network address.
  • For switching purposes, it uses the packets switching method.
  • For route selection, it uses the dynamic routing method.
  • For connection services, IP provides error control.

IP is a connectionless, datagram protocol. IP packets etc are also called as IP datagrams. IP uses packets switching. It performs route selection by using dynamic routing tables that are referenced at each hop. The packets making up a message could be routed differently through the Internetwork depending on the state of network at each hop. 

IP address are unique, 4 byte address that must be assigned to every addressable device or node on the Internetwork . 

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


FTP is used for file transfer between internet work notes in addition it allow user to initiate process on the remote post FTP enable user to log in to remote host it function at the top three layer of the OSI model

It can transfer files between any computers that have an Internet connection and also work between computers using totally different operating system as follows:-

  • At the section layer FTP provide session administration handling connection establishment file transfer and connection release.
  • At the presentation layer FTP is concerned with translation using a machine independent file Syntex.
  • At the application layer this to call supplies network service such as file service.

FTP differs from other client server application in that it established to connection between the host one connection is used for data transfer the other for control information separation of command and data transfer makes FTP more efficient the control connection uses very simple rule of communication we need to transfer only a line of command or a line of response at a time the data connection on the other hand needs for complex rule due to the variety of data type transferred.

Hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP)


It defines how messages are formatted and transmitted and what action should be taken by the Web servers and browsers in response to various commands.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

( SMTP )

It is standard protocol for E-mail services on a TCP/IP in network. It provides the ability to send and receive e-mail messages.

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is a TCP IP Protocol that specifies how computer exchange electronic mail it work with post office protocol pop SMTP is used to upload mail directly from the client to and intermediate host but only computer constantly connected such as internet service provider ISP to the internet can use SMTP to receive mail the ISP server than of load the mail to the user to whom they provide the Internet service.

Window 2000 include and SMTP male client so does windows anti resource kit. Microsoft exchange server will root your l a n mail on and off the internet.

Telnet Protocol


It is a program that runs on the computer and connects PC to a server on the network. This protocol is used on the Internet or Local Area Network .Telnet session will started by entering valid username and password.

The main task of the internet and its TCP IP Protocol suit is to provide service for user.for Examples user want to be able to run different application program at a remote site and generate result that can be transferred to their local site one way to satisfy this demand is to create different client server application program for each desired device program such as file transfer program and email are already available but it would be impossible to write a specific client server program for each demand.

The better solution is a general purpose client server program that let’s a user access any application program on a remote computer in other words allow the user to log on to a remote computer after loging on a user can use the service available on the remote computer and transfer the result back to the local computer.

Telnet is used for remote terminal emulation it enable user to access host based application by emulating one of the host terminal Telnet provides connectivity between the dissimilar operating system.

Tell net function at the top three layer of the OSI model as follows:-

  • At the session layer it provide dialogue control using the half duplex method it also provides session administration handling , connection establishment, file transfer and releasing the connection.
  • At the presentation layer telnet is concerned with translation using the byte order and character codes .
  • At the application layer this protocol supplies the service use function for remote operations.

Network File System (NFS)


Network file system NFS is a distributed file system protocol suit developed by s Sun micro system that allow remote file access across on network it allow all network user to access shared file is stored on computer of different types.

NFS provide access to share file through an interface called the virtual file system VFS that run on top of TCP / IP user can manipulate shared file as if they were is stored locally on the user on hard disc with NFS computer connected to a network operate as client while accessing remote file and a server while providing remote user access to local shared file.

Simple Network System Protocol (SNMP)


Snmp is an internet standard application layer layer 7 protocol for exchanging device management information between network device on a TCP/IP Network . Simple network management protocol s and MP is most often used for collecting statistical and configuration information about network device such as computer her switches routers and even network printers the statistical information include the number of packet or frames sent or received per second , the number of error per second etc. The configuration information includes the IP address of an interface on the device, the version of the operating system running on the device,etc. Management system are used to monitor network health , trap error, perform diagnostics and generate reports . SNMP is most popular network management protocol in use .

Domain System Name (DNS)


Sun Microsystems developed the Domain Name System (DNS) in the early 1980s as an easier way to keep track of internet addresses the internet protocol IP uses internet address information to deliver male and other data from computer to computer every IP address on the internet is actually a series of four member separated by periods called or such as 963.52.128.72.But it will be difficult to remember numeric address to communicate with someone using electronic mail DNS established a hierarchy of domain which are group of computers on the internet.

Domain Name System (DNS) is the standard for resolving names to internet addresses . However the host file still play a role in name resolution during the booting of a system and as a means to provide l a n dissolving when DNS is down in a net cell DN is a distributed database whose structure looks like the UNIX file system.DNS is a client /server system in which the resolver query the name server to find an address record for a domain name the query process begin with the root name server if the root name server does not know the answer it return the address of a name server that no more detail about the domain name the resolve them queries the new name server this iterative process continues until a name server respond with the address for the domain name.

The root of DNS database on the internet is managed by the internet network information centre. The top level domain where is signed organisation wise and by country DNS is a protocol that can be used in different platform in the internet the domain name is pastry is divided into three different section:-

  • Generic Domain 
  • Country Domain
  • Inverse Domain 

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) 


It is a communication protocol that is used for wireless data access through most mobile wireless networks.

WAP facilitates instant connectivity between interactive wireless devices and the Internet.

Point – to – Point (PPP)

Point to Point

It is a dial account which puts your computer directly on the Internet. A modem is required for such connection which transmit the data 9600 bits per second.

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Pooja Rastogi

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